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The Calvinist Reformed and Lutheran Protestant churches had existed in parallel after Prince-Elector John Sigismund declared his conversion from Lutheranism to Calvinism in , with most of his subjects remaining Lutheran.
Their descendants made up the bulk of the Calvinists in Brandenburg. At issue over many decades was how to unite into one church. One year after he ascended to the throne in , Frederick William III, being summus episcopus Supreme Governor of the Protestant Churches , decreed a new common liturgical agenda service book to be published, for use in both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations.
The king, a Reformed Christian, lived in a denominationally mixed marriage with the Lutheran Queen Louise — , which is why they never partook of Communion together.
This liturgical agenda was the culmination of the efforts of his predecessors to unify these two Protestant churches in Prussia and in its predecessor, the Electorate of Brandenburg , becoming later its core province.
Whereas, since the Reformation the two Protestant denominations in Brandenburg had had their own ecclesiastical governments under state control through the crown as Supreme Governor, under the new absolutism then in vogue, the Churches were under a civil bureaucratic state supervision by a ministerial section.
In the Reformed Friedrich Schleiermacher , pastor of Trinity Church Berlin-Friedrichstadt , issued his ideas for a constitutional reform of the Protestant Churches, also proposing a union.
The Reformed churches and the Lutheran church were thus administered by one department within the same ministry. The ministry introduced the preaching gown German: Talar as the usual clerical clothing.
On 7 November Frederick William expressed his desire to see the Protestant congregations around Prussia follow this example, and become Union congregations.
Thus, in the years that followed, many Lutheran and Reformed congregations did follow the example of Potsdam, and became merged congregations, while others maintained their former Lutheran or Reformed denomination.
Especially in many Rhenish places Lutherans and Calvinists merged their parishes to form United Protestant congregations. A number of steps were taken to effect the number of pastors that would become Union pastors.
Candidates for ministry, from onwards were required to state whether they would be willing to join the Union.
Also an ecumenical ordination vow was formulated in which the pastor avowed allegiance to the Evangelical Church. In , the administrative umbrella comprising the Protestant congregations in Prussia adopted the name Evangelical Church in the Royal Prussian Lands German: The agenda was not well received by many Lutherans, as it was seen to compromise in the wording of the Words of Institution , to a point where the Real Presence was not proclaimed.
More importantly, the increasing coercion of the civil authorities into Church affairs was viewed as a new threat to Protestant freedom of a kind not seen since the Papacy.
In the Protestant congregations were directed to use only the newly formulated Agenda for worship. This met with strong objections from Lutheran pastors around Prussia.
Despite the opposition, 5, out of 7, Protestant congregations were using the new agenda by In the king made him the Provost of St.
Petri Church then the highest ranking ecclesiastical office in Berlin and an Oberkonsistorialrat supreme consistorial councillor and thus a member of the Marcher Consistory.
He became an influential confidant of the king and one of his privy councillors and a referee to Minister Stein zum Altenstein. In , Neander was appointed first General Superintendent of the Kurmark — In the king bestowed him the very unusual, title of honorary bishop.
Debate and opposition to the new agenda persisted until , when a revised edition of the agenda was produced. This liturgy incorporated a greater level of elements from the Lutheran liturgical tradition.
With this introduction, the dissent against the agenda was greatly reduced. However, a significant minority felt this was merely a temporary political compromise with which the king could continue his ongoing campaign to establish a civil authority over their freedom of conscience.
In June , Frederick William ordered that all Protestant congregations and clergy in Prussia give up the names Lutheran or Reformed and take up the name Evangelical.
The decree was not to enforce a change of belief or denomination, but was only a change of nomenclature. Subsequently, the term Evangelical German: Rather than having the unifying effect that Frederick William desired, the decree created a great deal of dissent amongst Lutheran congregations.
In a compromise with some dissenters, who had now earned the name Old Lutherans , in Frederick William issued a decree, which stated that Union would only be in the areas of governance, and in the liturgical agenda, and that the respective congregations could retain their denominational identities.
Becoming aware of this defiance, officials sought out those who acted against the decree. Pastors, who were caught, were suspended from their ministry.
If suspended pastors were caught acting in a pastoral role, they were imprisoned. Having now shown his hand as a tyrant bent on oppressing their religious freedom, and under continual police surveillance, the Evangelical Church in the Royal Prussian Lands began disintegrating.
By many dissenting Old Lutheran groups were looking to emigration as a means to finding religious freedom. The latter emigration led to the formation of the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod , today the second largest Lutheran denomination in the U.
The former emigration led to the eventual creation of the Lutheran Church of Australia which was formed in He released the pastors who had been imprisoned, and allowed the dissenting groups to form religious organisations in freedom.
On 23 July the royal government recognised the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Prussia and its congregations as legal entities.
In the prevailingly Catholic principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , ruled by Catholic princely branches of the Hohenzollern family, joined the Kingdom of Prussia and became the Province of Hohenzollern.
There had hardly been any Protestants in the tiny area, but with the support from Berlin congregational structures were built up.
Until three later altogether five congregations were founded and in organised as a deanery of its own.
The congregations were stewarded by the Evangelical Supreme Church Council see below like congregations of expatriates abroad.
Only on 1 January the congregations became an integral part of the Prussian state church. No separate ecclesiastical province was established, but the deanery was supervised by that of the Rhineland.
After the trouble with the Old Lutherans in pre Prussia, the Prussian government refrained from imposing the Prussian Union onto the church bodies in these territories.
Also the reconciliation of the Lutheran majority of the citizens in the annexed states with their new Prussian citizenship was not to be further complicated by religious quarrels.
Its bishops and clergy proselytised in the Holy Land among the non-Muslim native population and German immigrants, such as the Templers.
But also Calvinist, Evangelical and Lutheran expatriates from Germany and Switzerland, living in the Holy Land, joined the German-speaking congregations.
But there were also congregations of emigrants and expatriates in other areas of the Ottoman Empire 2 , as well as in Argentina 3 , Brasil 10 , Bulgaria 1 , Chile 3 , Egypt 2 , Italy 2 , the Netherlands 2 , Portugal 1 , Romania 8 , Serbia 1 , Spain 1 , Switzerland 1 , United Kingdom 5 , and Uruguay 1 and the foreign department of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council see below stewarded them.
Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat , EOK,  est. The general synod first convened in June , presided by Daniel Neander, consisting of representatives of the clergy, the parishioners and members nominated by the king.
The general synod found an agreement on the teaching and the ordination, but the king did not confirm any of its decisions. Kirchenprovinz ; see ecclesiastical province of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia , in the nine pre political provinces of Prussia, to wit in the Province of East Prussia homonymous ecclesiastical province , in Berlin, which had become a separate Prussian administrative unit in , and the Province of Brandenburg Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg for both , in the Province of Pomerania homonymous , in the Province of Posen homonymous , in the Rhine Province and since in the Province of Hohenzollern Ecclesiastical Province of the Rhineland , in the Province of Saxony homonymous , in the Province of Silesia homonymous , in the Province of Westphalia homonymous , and in the Province of West Prussia homonymous.
Every ecclesiastical province had a provincial synod representing the provincial parishioners and clergy  , and one consistory or more , led by general superintendents Gen.
The two western provinces, Rhineland and Westphalia, had the strongest Calvinist background, since they were including the territories of the former Duchies of Berg , Cleves , Juliers and the Counties of Mark , Tecklenburg , the Siegerland , and the Principality of Wittgenstein , all of which had Calvinist traditions.
Already in the provincial church constitutions German: Provinzial-Kirchenordnung provided for a general superintendent and congregations in both ecclesiastical provinces with presbyteries of elected presbyters.
In the Rhineland and Westphalia a presbytery is called in German: Authoritarian traditions competed with liberal and modern ones.
Committed congregants formed Kirchenparteien  , which nominated candidates for the elections of the parochial presbyteries and of the provincial or church-wide general synods.
A strong Kirchenpartei were the Konfessionellen the denominationals , representing congregants of Lutheran tradition, who had succumbed in the process of uniting the denominations after and still fought the Prussian Union.
Mittelpartei , affirming the Prussian Union, criticising the Higher criticism in Biblical science , but still claiming the freedom of science also in theology.
Therefore, the Positive Union often formed coalitions with the Konfessionellen. The ever-growing societal segment of the workers among the Evangelical parishioners had little affinity to the Church, which was dominated in their pastors and functionaries by members of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy.
However, it earned the queen the nickname Kirchen-Juste. Modern anti-Semitism , emerging in the s, with its prominent proponent Heinrich Treitschke and its famous opponent Theodor Mommsen , a son of a pastor and later Nobel Prize laureate , found also supporters among the proponents of traditional Protestant Anti-Judaism as promoted by the Prussian court preacher Adolf Stoecker.
The new King William II dismissed him in for the reason of his political agitation by his anti-Semitic Christian Social Party , neo-paganism and personal scandals.
The intertwining of most leading clerics and church functionaries with traditional Prussian elites brought about that the State Church considered the First World War as a just war.
Furthermore, the Weimar Constitution of decreed the separation of state and religion. The new name was after a denomination, not after a state any more.
It became a difficult task to maintain the unity of the church, with some of the annexing states being opposed to the fact that church bodies within their borders keep a union with German church organisations.
The territory comprising the Ecclesiastical Province of Posen was now largely Polish, and except of small fringes that of West Prussia had been either seized by Poland or Danzig.
Unierte Evangelische Kirche in Polen , Polish: The United Evangelical Church in Poland also incorporated the Evangelical congregations in Pomerellia , ceded by Germany to Poland in February , which prior used to belong to the Ecclesiastical Province of West Prussia , as well as the congregations in Soldau and 32 further East Prussian municipalities,  which Germany ceded to Poland on 10 January , prior belonging to the Ecclesiastical Province of East Prussia.
A number of congregations lay in those northern and western parts of the Province of Posen , which were not annexed by Poland and remained with Germany.
They were united with those congregations of the western most area of West Prussia, which remained with Germany, to form the new Posen-West Prussian ecclesiastical province.
They continue to exist until this very day. Landessynodalverband der Freien Stadt Danzig. This enabled the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union to sign a contract with the Memel autonomous government German: A number of congregations formed a deanery German: Kirchenkreis , holding a deanery synod German: Kreissynode of synodals elected by the presbyteries.
The deanery synodals elected the deanery synodal board German: Kreissynodalvorstand , in charge of the ecclesiastical supervision of the congregations in a deanery, which was chaired by a superintendent, appointed by the provincial church council German: Provinzialkirchenrat after a proposal of the general superintendent.
The consistory was the provincial administrative body, whose members were appointed by the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. Each consistory was chaired by a general superintendent, being the ecclesiastical, and a consistorial president German: The provincial synods and the provincial church councils elected from their midst the synodals of the general synod , the legislative body of the overall Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.
The general synod elected the church senate German: Kirchensenat , the governing board presided by the praeses of the general synod, elected by the synodals.
Johann Friedrich Winckler held the office of praeses from until The church senate appointed the members of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , the supreme administrative entity, which again appointed the members of the consistories.
The majority of parishioners stayed in a state of unease with the changes and many were skeptical towards the democracy of the Weimar Republic.
Nationalist convervative groups dominated the general synods. The traditional affinity to the former princely holders of the summepiscopacy often continued.
So when in the leftist parties successfully launched a plebiscite to the effect of the expropriation of the German former regnal houses without compensation, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union called up for an abstention from the election, holding up the commandment Thou shalt not steal.
A problem was the spiritual vacuum, which emerged after the church stopped being a state church. Otto Dibelius , since general superintendent of Kurmark within the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , published his book Das Jahrhundert der Kirche The century of the Church  , in which he declared the 20th century to be the era when the Evangelical Church may for the first time develop freely and gain the independence God would have wished for, without the burden and constraints of the state church function.
In this respect Dibelius regarded himself as consciously anti-Jewish, explaining in a circular to the pastors in his general superintendency district of Kurmark , "that with all degenerating phenomena of modern civilisation Judaism plays a leading role".
While this new self-conception helped the activists within the church, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union could not increase the number of its activists.
In Berlin the number of activists made up maybe 60, to 80, persons of an overall number of parishioners of more than 3 millions within an overall of more than 4 million Berliners.
In the early and mids the annual number of secessions amounted to about 80, In the field of church elections committed congregants formed new Kirchenparteien , which nominated candidates for the elections of the presbyteries and synods of different level.
In Christian socialists founded the Covenant of Religious Socialists. Glaubensbewegung Deutsche Christen , DC , participating on 12—14 November for the first time in the elections for presbyters and synodals within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union and gaining about a third of the seats in presbyteries and synods.
In the inter-war years the general synod convened five times. After the system of state churches had disappeared with the monarchies in the German states, the question arose, why the Protestant church bodies within Germany did not merge.
Besides the smaller Protestant denominations of the Mennonites, Baptists or Methodists, which were organised crossing state borders along denominational lines, there were 29 later 28 church bodies organised along territorial borders of German states or Prussian provinces.
In fact, a merger was permanently under discussion, but never materialised due to strong regional self-confidence and traditions as well as the denominational fragmentation into Lutheran, Calvinist and United and uniting churches.
Following the Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches of , the then 29 territorially defined German Protestant church bodies founded the Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund German Federation of Protestant Churches in , which was no new merged church, but a loose confederacy of the existing independent church bodies.
Most clerics, representatives and parishioners welcomed the Nazi takeover. Most Protestants suggested that the mass arrests, following the abolition of central civic rights by Paul von Hindenburg on 28 February , hit the right persons.
On 20 March Dachau concentration camp , the first official premise of its kind, was opened, while , hastily arrested inmates were held in hundreds of spontaneous so-called wild concentration camps, to be gradually evacuated into about new official camps to be opened until the end of On 21 March the newly elected Reichstag convened in the Evangelical Garrison Church of Potsdam , an event commemorated as the Day of Potsdam , and the locally competent Gen.
Even after this clearly anti-Semitic action he repeated in his circular to the pastors of Kurmark on the occasion of Easter 16 April his anti-Jewish attitude, giving the same words as in On 4 and 5 April representatives of the German Christians convened in Berlin and demanded the dismissal of all members of the executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany.
Reichsbischof , abolishing all democratic participation of parishioners in presbyteries and synods. Furthermore, the German Christians demanded to purify Protestantism of all Jewish patrimony.
Judaism should no longer be regarded a religion, which can be adopted and given up, but a racial category which were genetic. Thus German Christians opposed proselytising among Jews.
Protestantism should become a pagan kind heroic pseudo-Nordic religion. Of course the Old Testament , which includes the Ten Commandments and the virtue of charity taken from the Torah , Book of Leviticus I am the LORD.
In a mood of an emergency through an impending Nazi takeover functionaries of the then officiating executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies stole a march on the German Christians.
This caused the later confusion when the streamlined Reich church and the Confessing Church alike identified as being the legitimate church of that name.
The plans were to dissolve the German Evangelical Church Confederation and the 28 church bodies and to replace them by a uniform Protestant church, to be called the German Evangelical Church German: Thus the Nazis, who were permanently breaking the law, stepped in, using the streamlined Prussian government, and declared the functionaries had exceeded their authority.
This act clearly violated the status of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union as statutory body German: Kapler resigned as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , after he had applied for retirement on 3 June, and Gen.
Then the German Christian Dr. Many pastors protested that and held instead services of penance bearing the violation of the church constitution in mind.
On 11 July German-Christian and intimidated non-such representatives of all the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany declared the German Evangelical Church Confederation to be dissolved and the German Evangelical Church to be founded.
On 14 July Hesse, Kapler and Marahrens presented the newly developed constitution of the German Evangelical Church , which the Nazi government declared to be valid.
The new synods of the 28 Protestant churches were to declare their dissolution as separate church bodies. He established a Spiritual Ministerium German: Landesbischof , a title and function non-existing in the constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , and claimed hierarchical supremacy over all clerics and other employees as is usual for Catholic bishops.
The Gestapo confiscated the office and the printing-press there, in order to hinder any reprint. Thus the turnout in the elections was extraordinarily high, since most non-observant Protestants, who since long aligned with the Nazis, had voted.
Then the German Christian majority of synodals over 37 nays decided to appeal to the general synod to introduce the so-called Aryan paragraph German: Gerhard Jacobi led the opposing provincial synodals.
Other provincial synods demanded the Aryan paragraph too. Therefore unequal rights, due to national or racial arguments, are inacceptable as well as any segregation.
The German Christians abused the general synod as a mere acclamation, like a Nazi party convention. Koch and his partisans left the synod.
Provinzialbischof replacing the prior general superintendents. By enabling the dismissal of all Protestants of Jewish descent from jobs with the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , the official church bodies accepted the Nazi racist doctrine of anti-Semitism.
This breach with Christian principles within the range of the church was unacceptable to many church members. Directly within the church and in the state by means of the secular government many church members could not see any basis, how a Protestant church body could interfere with the anti-Semitism performed in the state sphere, since in its self-conception the church body was a religious, not a political organisation.
Among them were Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer , who demanded the church bodies to oppose the abolition of democracy and the unlawfulness in the general political sphere.
In reaction to the anti-Semitic discriminations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union the church-aligned Breslauer Christliches Wochenblatt Breslau Christian Weekly published the following criticism in the October edition of Then Christ descends from the Crucifix of the altar and leaves the church.
On 11 September Gerhard Jacobi gathered c. In the Covenant counted 7, members, after the number sank to 4,, among them retired pastors, auxiliary preachers and candidates.
On 18 September Werner was appointed praeses of the old-Prussian general synod, thus becoming president of the church senate.
Thus the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , which included Berlin, had two bishops.
Only such synodals were admitted, who would "uncompromisingly stand up any time for the National Socialist state" German: Furthermore, the national synod usurped the power in the 28 Protestant church bodies and provided the new so-called bishops of the 28 Protestant church bodies with hierarchical supremacy over all clergy and laymen within their church organisation.
The national synod abolished future election for the synods of the 28 Protestant church bodies. Henceforth synodals had to replace two thirds of the outgoing synodals by co-optation, the remaining third was to be appointed by the respective bishop.
The general synod German: The synods of 25 other Protestant church bodies decided the same until the end of This made also the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover one of the few Protestant churches in Germany using the title of bishop already since the s, thus prior to the Nazi era , with State Bishop August Marahrens , change its mind.
Reinhold Krause, then president of the Greater Berlin section of the German Christians , held a speech, defaming the Old Testament for its alleged "Jewish morality of rewards" German: A wave of protest flooded over the German Christians , which ultimately initiated the decline of that movement.
On 25 November the complete Bavarian section of the German Christians declared its secession. Many presbyters of German Christian alignment retired, tired from disputing.
The verdict would have major consequences for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. In a series of provincial synods the opposition assumed shape.
Martin Albertz, elected its first provincial brethren council , comprising Supt. The Gestapo shut down one office of the provincial brethren council after the other.
The Gestapo summoned her more than 40 times and tried to intimidate her, confronting her with the fact that she, being partly of Jewish descent, would have to realise the worst possible treatment in jail.
Some functionaries and laymen in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union opposed the unification of the 28 Protestant church bodies, but many more agreed, but they wanted it under the preservation of the true Protestant faith, not imposed by Nazi partisans.
In reaction to the convention and claims of the German Christians non-Nazi Protestants met in Barmen from 29 to 31 May On 29 May those coming from congregations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union held a separate meeting, their later on so-called first old-Prussian Synod of Confession German: The participants declared this basis to be binding for any Protestant Church deserving that name and confessed their allegiance to this basis see Barmen Theological Declaration.
Henceforth the movement of all Protestant denominations, opposing Nazi adulteration of Protestantism and Nazi intrusion into Protestant church affairs, was called the Confessing Church German: Presbyteries with German Christian majorities often banned Confessing Christians from using church property and even entering the church buildings.
Many church employees, who opposed, were dismissed. While the German Christians , holding the majority in most official church bodies, lost many supporters, the Confessing Christians , comprising many authentical persuasive activists, still remained a minority but increased their number.
As compared to the vast majority of indifferent, non-observing Protestants, both movements were marginal.
One pre tradition of non-ecclesiastical influence within church structures had made it into the new constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union of Many of the churches, which had been founded before the 19th century, had a patron holding the ius patronatus , meaning that either the owner of a manor estate in the countryside or a political municipality or city was in charge of maintaining the church buildings and paying the pastor.
No pastor could be appointed without the consent of the patron advowson. This became a curse and a blessing during the Nazi period. While all political entities were Nazi-streamlined they abused the patronage to appoint Nazi-submissive pastors on the occasion of a vacancy.
Also estate owners sometimes sided with the Nazis. But more estate owners were conservative and thus rather backed the opposition in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.
So the congregations under their patronage could often keep or appoint anew a pastor of the intra-church opposition. On 9 August the Second National Synod , with all synodals again admitted by the Spiritual Ministerium , severed the uniformation of the formerly independent Protestant church bodies, disenfranchising their respective synods to decide in internal church matters.
These pretensions increased the criticism among church members within the streamlined church bodies. A breakthrough was the verdict of 20 November But the prior dismissals of opponents and impositions of loyal German Christians in many church functions were not reversed.
Werner regained his authority as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. These activities completely depended on donations.
In the Gestapo closed the seminaries in the east. Iwand, on whom in the Gestapo had inflicted the nationwide prohibition to speak in the public, reopened a seminary in Dortmund in January This earned him an imprisonment of four month in the same year.
Among their examiners were originally professors of the Frederick William University of Berlin , who refrained from examining after their employer, the Nazi government, threatened to dismiss them in The Gestapo forbade the opening ceremony in Dahlem, thus Supt.
Albertz spontaneously celebrated it in St. On 4 December, the Gestapo closed the KiHo altogether, thus the teaching and learning continued underground at changing locations.
Among the teachers were Supt. The synodals elected by all confessing congregations and the congregations of the intact churches decided to found an independent German Evangelical Church.
Since the confessing congregations would have to contravene the laws as interpreted by the official church bodies, the synod developed an emergency law of its own.
Bruderrat as provisional presbytery, and a Confessing congregation assembly German: The Confessing congregations of each deanery formed a Confessing deanery synod German: Kreis-Bekenntnissynode , electing a deanery brethren council German: If the superintendent of a deanery clung to the Confessing Church , he was accepted, otherwise a deanery pastor German: Kreispfarrer was elected from the midst of the Confessing pastors in the deanery.
Confessing congregants elected synodals for a Confessing provincial synod as well as Confessing State synod German: Landes-Bekenntnissynode , who again elected a provincial brethren council or the state brethren council of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union colloquially old-Prussian brethren council , and a council of the Confessing ecclesiastical province German: Rat der Bekennenden Kirche of the respective ecclesiastical province or the council of the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union , the respective administrative bodies.
Any obedience to the official bodies of the destroyed church of the old-Prussian Union was to be rejected. In Berlin Confessing Christians celebrated the constitution of their church on the occasion of the Reformation Day 31 October The Gestapo forbade them any public event, thus the festivities had to take place in closed rooms with bidden guests only.
All the participants had to carry a so-called red card , identifying them as proponents of the Confessing Church. On 7 December the Gestapo forbade the Confessing Church to rent any location, in order to prevent future events like that.
The Nazi government then forbade any mentioning of the Kirchenkampf in which media whatsoever. Hitler was informed about the proceedings in Dahlem and invited the leaders of the three Lutheran intact churches , Marahrens, Meiser and Wurm.
Dahlemiten , and the more moderate Lutheran intact churches and many opposing functionaries and clergy in the destroyed churches , which had not yet been dismissed.
Between end of and March the central office of the Preliminary Church Executive was located in the Burckhardt-Haus of the school for social workers German: The synodals decided that the Confessing Church of the old-Prussian Union should unite with the destroyed official Church of the old-Prussian Union.
The synodals further adopted a declaration about the Nazi racist doctrine. The same month the declaration was read in all confessing congregations, that the Nazi racist doctrine, claiming there were a Jewish and an Aryan race, was pure mysticism.
In reaction to that the Nazi government arrested pastors, who had read this declaration from their pulpits. From then on every Tuesday the brethren councils issued updated lists with the names of the imprisoned.
Since the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany levied contributions from their parishioners by a surcharge on the income tax , collected and then transferred by the state tax offices, the official church bodies denied the confessing congregations their share in the contributions.
Each congregation had its own budget and the official church authorities transferred the respective share in the revenues to the legitimate presbytery of each congregations, be it governed by German Christians or Confessing Christians.
All budgets and remittances were to be confirmed by state comptrollers. On 11 April an ordinance ordered that salaries were only to be remitted to orderly appointed employees and all future appointments of whomsoever, would only take effect with the consent of the financial departments.
He turned out to ignore the rules and to largely use his scope of discretion. Thus Confessing congregations outside of Berlin built up a new network of escrow accounts.
Confessing Christians of laity and Covenant pastors, still undisputedly receiving a full salary from the official church, agreed to substantial contributions to maintain the Confessing Church.
But the synodals did not adopt a declaration, prepared by Supt. Albertz, condemning the Nuremberg Laws. Wurm was elected speaker of the Confessing Church.
Since the orderly courts often approved litigations against German Christian measurements, because they usually lacked any legal basis, on 26 June the Nazi government passed a law, which would ban all suits about church questions from being decided by orderly jurisdiction.
Thus the Nazi government cut off the Confessing Church from appealing to courts. Orderly courts could not overrule its decisions. In fact the Decision-Taking Office only acted up after the compromises failed in In the following years of compromising Hermann Ehlers became a legal advisor of the old-Prussian brethren council , until he was arrested from June to July , which made him quit his collaboration.
Therefore, he dropped the extreme German Christians and tried to win moderate Confessing Christians and respected neutrals. On 24 September , a new law empowered Kerrl to legislate by way of ordinances within the Protestant church bodies, circumventing any synodal autonomy.
On 10 September the old-Prussian brethren council convened preparing the upcoming third old-Prussian Synod of Confession also Steglitz Synod.
Albertz urged the brethren council to discuss the terrible situation of Jewish Germans and Gentile Germans of Jewish descent, as it turned by the Nuremberg Laws and all the other anti-Semitic discriminations.
This was completely denied by the German Christians since , reserving Christianity as a religion exclusively for Gentiles, but also some Confessing Christians refused the baptism of Jews.
Wir haben hier keine solche Tradition; bei uns gibt es Adventskalender meistens Schokolade und dann Geschenke an Weihnachten: Ich wusste gar nicht, dass es die Nikolaus Tradition in der Schweiz nicht gibt aber Schokoadventskalender sind ja auch echt gut!
I really love reading about Christmas all over the world! I find it so interesting to learn about the different traditions: Beautiful location and outfit.
Such a cute winter look, prefer for the Holidays! D Dieses Jahr gab es aber was. Love your pom pom beanie hat by the way!
AAA I love your bobble hat! Do you want to support each others blog by following each other? Please let me know so I can follow you right back: So gorgeous lovely outfit.
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